Physical Education and Adapted Physical Education Services

Assisting Students through Adapted Physical Education

Adapted physical education provides support for developmentally appropriate physical education curriculum tailored to the unique needs of every learner.



APE

Each student with a disability must be provided the opportunity to participate in the regular physical education program available to students without disabilities. The exception to this would be if the student is enrolled full-time in a separate facility, or needs specially designed physical education. [41.108(2)]

To determine if the student needs specially designed physical education, the IEP team must consider the information in the PLAAFP, goals and other services, activities and supports. Data might include:

  • input from: the physical educator, nurse and/or physician (if there are safety/medical issues), physical therapist, occupational therapist, other IEP team members;
  • comparison of student performance with grade level student expectations in physical education;
  • observations in physical education; and
  • physical fitness assessments used by the school (e.g., BMI (body mass index), motor tests, rubrics, curriculum based assessments).

The IEP team uses these definitions in making this determination:

General physical education: The student attends physical education with age peers. No changes to curriculum, instruction, equipment, assessment methods, or support are required for the student to participate, be successful, and make progress in the general curriculum.

Modified physical education: The student attends physical education with age peers, but needs additional supports to participate, be successful, and make progress in the general curriculum. Samples/examples of modifications may include:

  • Individualized warm up routine prescribed by a PT
  • Adapted equipment
  • Instructional accommodations
  • Paraprofessional support
  • Mobility aide (e.g., crutches, walker, mobile stander)
  • Safety or other health needs
  • Attending PE more frequently than other students to support progress in the PE curriculum
  • Attending PE with older peers or peer partner PE class.
  • Modified grading (if specific to PE activities)

If students are not making progress in the general curriculum, specially designed physical education is indicated. A goal is necessary to measure individual student progress. Specially designed instruction requires substantial adaptation of the curriculum or special curriculum development, individualization of instructional strategies, substantial equipment modifications and set up, collaboration with related nine contents service providers. The individual’s PE program and environment is tailored to the student’s needs in the areas of motor development, play, fitness, recreation and lifetime leisure.

Federal law requires that ALL students with disabilities age 3 to 21 must be provided instruction in physical education. Definition of Special Education.

Physical Education and IDEA 2004
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has been amended a number of times in the past 30 years. The law provides a free, appropriate, public education to children ages 0 – 21 and includes instruction in physical education, specially designed if necessary.

Physical Education is defined as the development of:

  1. Physical and motor fitness
  2. Fundamental motor skills and patterns; and
  3. Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports); and includes special physical education, adapted physical education, movement education, and motor development.
  4. Specially designed instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction- (i) to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and (ii) to ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that he or she can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children.

Provision of services for children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment (LRE) is a critical component of the reauthorization of IDEA.

SHAPE America Guidance Document, "Answering Frequently Asked Questions About Adapted Physical Education"

The IEP team uses these definitions in making this determination:

General physical education: The student attends physical education with age peers. No changes to curriculum, instruction, equipment, assessment methods, or support are required for the student to participate, be successful, and make progress in the general curriculum.


Modified physical education: The student attends physical education with age peers, but needs additional supports to participate, be successful, and make progress in the general curriculum. Samples/examples of modifications may include:

  • Individualized warm up routine prescribed by a PT
  • Adapted equipment
  • Instructional accommodations
  • Paraprofessional support
  • Mobility aide (e.g., crutches, walker, mobile stander)
  • Safety or other health needs
  • Attending PE more frequently than other students to support progress in the PE curriculum
  • Attending PE with older peers or peer partner PE class.
  • Modified grading (if specific to PE activities)

If students are not making progress in the general curriculum, specially designed physical education is indicated. A goal is necessary to measure individual student progress. Specially designed instruction requires substantial adaptation of the curriculum or special curriculum development, individualization of instructional strategies, substantial equipment modifications and set up, collaboration with related nine contents service providers. The individual’s PE program and environment is tailored to the student’s needs in the areas of motor development, play, fitness, recreation and lifetime leisure.substantial adaptation of the curriculum or special curriculum development, individualization of instructional strategies, substantial equipment modifications and set up, collaboration with related nine content service providers. The individual’s PE program and environment is tailored to the student’s needs in the areas of motor development, play, fitness, recreation and lifetime leisure.

The LRE determination is made by the IEP team.

Physical Education: Documentation Guide – Revisions highlighted Physical Education (PE).

  • The Web IEP allows a single selection. The IEP team indicates the option (general, modified, or specially designed) that requires the greatest degree of individualization for any or all of the student’s physical education program. If modified or specially designed PE is required for some, but not all activities, the description of PE must delineate which activities require modification or special design and which do not. For example:

Modified (description on Page G). Teresa is able to participate in most general PE activities. However, Teresa’s warm up routine is individualized and designed in collaboration with the physical therapist and fitness exercises are individualized. Equipment must be non-latex


Modified (description on Page G). Joshua requires the following modifications during all PE activities: paraeducator support for safety and success due to visual impairment and head injury; soft equipment and a designated “safe” area for skill practice


Modified (description on Page G). Gina participates in physical education activities with same-age peers using mobility aides (walker, mobile stander) and switch activated equipment for archery, golf, basketball shooting, and volleyball serving.


Modified (description on Page G). Nate attends general physical education with peers DAILY which provides him increased practice and skill repetition necessary to make progress in the general curriculum.


Specially designed (description on Page F). Jose’s entire PE program is specially designed. He requires activities that emphasize functional fitness (body support, transition in and out of positions,) and lifetime recreational activities. He requires paraeducator support, small group setting and individualized instruction with adapted materials to maintain personal strength


Specially designed (description on Page F). Tara will participate in general PE activities with age peers. She requires modifications in the general setting for endurance activities, needing frequent rest time, reduced number of repetitions or less weight. When the typical activity requires the propulsion of a large ball(s) (volleyball, basketball, soccer ball, football) Tara’s participation must be specially designed with assistive technology.

  • If PE is “specially designed,” PLAAFP and CAAFP information must support the need, a goal is required and a description of services should appear on Page F.

The least restrictive environment (LRE) is the educational environment that enables students with disabilities to receive an appropriate education and provides the students with maximum opportunities for interaction with peers without disabilities.

Removal from the general education environment may occur only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes (with the use of supplementary aids and services) cannot be achieved satisfactorily. [41.114(2)b]

Supplementary aids and services are aids, services, and supports that enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate. [41.42]

These aids, services, and supports are to be provided in:

    • General education environments
    • Education-related settings (field trips, work experience sites)
    • Extracurricular settings o Athletics, clubs, school plays, etc.
    • Nonacademic settings o School dances, school sponsored activities Examples of supplementary aids and services include:
    • Educational interpreters
    • One-on-one paraprofessionals
    • Health services (e.g., catheterization)

Note: Many services and supports serve the purpose of a “supplementary aid or service.” When supplementary aids and services are regular and ongoing and there is an appropriate service code and definition, use that service code (e.g., PP or TA for paraprofessional services, HS for health services, IN for interpreter, etc.).

LRE is grounded in the idea that while the general education environment is the most ideal setting for students, some students may at times need different settings in order to receive an appropriate education.

It is also expected that an eligible individual may need special assistance in the general education setting.

The decisions regarding the setting(s) where a student will be educated is based on:

  • The specific needs of the student
  • Whether the student may need individualized assistance in the general education setting, and
  • A review of the continuum of services

AEA Special Education Procedures - August 2016

Procedures Release Notes, August 2016

In lieu of state guidelines, for detailed information regarding legal requirements related to the provision of physical education to students with disabilities, please refer to Wright's Law:

Physical Education (PE) & Adapted Physical Education (APE), Wrightslaw

Hot Tips is a publication of the Grant Wood Area Education Agency Adapted Physical Education Department. Past issues are included in the index to assist the reader in locating topics of interest.

Please note that previous issues may have information or language which may not be in accordance with current convention or practice.

Portable document format (PDF) files on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader to view and print them.

Hot Tips Index
Issues 1-26

Hot Tips #1
The Physical Educators Challenge: The Physically Challenged
Feature Activity #1: "Ultimate" Ping-Pong

Hot Tips #2
Physical Education for All Students: It's the Law - What's the Law?
Feature Activities: Wart Ball & Target Badminton

Hot Tips #3
integration - Mainstreaming...or Guess Who's Coming to Gym!
Feature Activities: Awareness Simulations

Hot Tips #4
Behavior Disorders
Feature Activities: Adventure Without Ropes

Hot Tips #5
Putting the Individual in Instruction
Feature Activities: Line Tag, Team Handball, Fish Iowa

Hot Tips #6
Inspirational, Thought-Provoking, Pearls of Wisdom
Feature Activity: Concentration

Hot Tips #7
Ideas and Resources
Feature Activity: Water Olympics, Indoor Track Meet

Hot Tips #8
Students with Head Injury
Feature Activities: Heart Attack and Hoover Ball

Hot Tips #9
Physical Education for Preschoolers
Feature Activities: Plastic Bag Sled and
Balloon Hacky Sack

Hot Tips #10
Full Inclusion
Feature Activities: Winter Olympics and
Ultimate Frisbee

Hot Tips #11
Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Feature Activity #1: Adaptations for Basketball
Feature Activity #2: Teach Them All

Hot Tips #12
Facts About Autism
Feature Activity #1: Hoops
Feature Activity #2: : Single Image Random-Dot Stereograms (SIRDS)

Hot Tips #13
Solutions to Inclusion
Feature Activity: Heart Chart

Hot Tips #14
Focus on Prevention and Protection
Feature Activity #1: Games Kids Play
Feature Activity #2: Dead Ant Tag

Hot Tips #15
Visual Impairments: Implications for Physical Eduation
Feature Activity #1: Tanks, Tanks, Tanks
Feature Activity #2: Asian Rules Ping-Pong

Hot Tips #16
Students with Mental Disabilities: Implications for Physical Education
Feature Activity #1: A Little Lillehammer
Feature Activity #2: Western Line Dancing

Hot Tips #17
Students with Attention Deficit Disorder

Feature Activity #1: Over, Under, Etc.
Feature Activity #2: Agility Dot Drill

Hot Tips #18
Students with Severe Disabilities
Feature Activity #1: Walk Tag
Feature Activity #2: Collective Hoops

Hot Tips #19
Developmentally Appropriate Games
Feature Activity #1: Spaghetti
Feature Activity #2: Indoor Miniature Golf
Feature Activity #3: Step-Box Aerobics

Hot Tips #20
New Teaching Techniques - Cooperative Games
Feature Activity: Disc Golf

Hot Tips #21
Cerebral Palsy
Feature Activity: Evolution

Hot Tips #22
Relaxation
Feature Activity: The SpinJammer

Hot Tips #23
Muscular Dystrophy
Feature Activity: Half Tennis Ball Activities

Hot Tips #23-R
Resources Available

Hot Tips #24
Spina Bifida
Feature Activities: Quick Starts

Hot Tips #25
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Feature Activity: Inclusion Woes

Hot Tips #26
Physical Education, The Brain and Learning
Feature Activity: Brain Games

Research, evidence, data, and guidelines regarding adapted physical education, physical education and physical activity.

Iowa Department of Education resources - Physical Activity
Healthy kids learn better. Physical activity can help students be healthier but more and more research is showing that physical activity may also impact academic achievement. Physical activity wakes up the brain, improves behavior and increases concentration. This page highlights resources that support the link between physical activity and academic success.

"Preschool Kids Starved for Exercise," USA Today, May 18, 2015

Move for Thought - Integrated Physical Activities for Learning in the Elementary School Classroom
The "Move for Thought" Kit was developed by Spyridoula Vazou, Ph.D. (Department of Kinesiology, Iowa State University). Dr. Vazou teaches Elementary Physical Education and her research focus is on motivating children to be physically active inside and outside the classroom.

To collect qualitative data about the use of the kit, volunteer classrooms are needed. Observations will occur in classrooms about the feasibility of the activities, as well as some interviews with teachers and students. To volunteer, contact Spryidoula Vazou.

"Schools reconsider recess polices," ASCD Brief

"Will More Exercise Help Close the Achievement Gap?" NEA Today, June 18, 2014

"Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School"
Report from the Institutes of Medicine, May 2013

The committee’s recommendations for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school.

"Decreasing Opportunities for Movement, Research Says Counter Productive"
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008, 5:10 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-10

Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance.

Conclusion:
Given competent providers, physical activity can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programs does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

Exercise makes us neurologically ready to learn

Exercise is the single most powerful tool you have to optimize your brain function

  • It strengthens the cardiovascular system
  • It regulates fuel
  • It reduces obesity
  • It elevates your stress threshold
  • It lifts your mood
  • It boosts the immune system
  • It fortifies your bones
  • It boosts motivation
  • It fosters neuroplasticity

John Ratey - Supporting research available.

Active Kids do better in school
Message for Superintendents

American Association of School Administrators (AASA)’s Beltway Bulletin hosted by Executive Director Daniel A. Domenech

Active Kids do better in school

“Something to Believe In: Physical Activity as a Springboard for Student Success,” written by SHAPE America President Dolly Lambdin, University of Texas at Austin

"Naperville’s IL: Physical Education fitness model sparks academic success"
“ The correlation between Naperville’s unusual brand of physical education and its test scores is simply too intriguing to dismiss,” Dr. John Ratey noted in his book SPARK. “Fitness plays a pivotal role in Naperville’s students’ academic achievements.”

Naperville, IL: Impressive results
Of particular significance, in 1999, Naperville’s eighth graders finished first in the world in science, just ahead of Singapore on the international standards test called TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study), which included students from 38 countries. In math, they placed sixth – behind only Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Japan.

Additional articles and videos, Naperville Central High School, Learning Readiness Physical Education Program

Active Kids do Better in School: Students with Disabilities
- The Surgeon General reports that students with disabilities are in comparatively poorer physical health, and are at greater risk of health-related disease, than the general population (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). In Successful Inclusion in the Regular Physical Education Setting , Wilsey and Forrester (2009) provide persuasive data documenting, “that children with disabilities tend to have lower levels of physical fitness, higher levels of obesity, and participate less in extracurricular school-based or after-school physical activity programs than their peers without disabilities.”


- The trend of childhood obesity and inactivity is increasing the focus on physical activity among children (e.g. The First Lady‟s Let’s Move! campaign--information available at ). Not only are inactivity and obesity even more prevalent among children with disabilities (Rimmer, 2008), inactivity and obesity can be more problematic for children and youth with disabilities because they can lead to and exacerbate secondary conditions associated with certain disabilities (Rimmer, Wang, Yamaki, & Davis, 2010).

Mounting Evidence…Healthy, Active Kids Learn Better
Schools can transform into active environments by providing students with quality physical education and opportunities to stay active each day. Two new resources from CDC, 2012 Physical Education Profiles Report(PE Profiles) and the 2012 Physical Education Profiles Fact Sheet, examine the policies and practices of select secondary schools and identify best practices and areas for improvement. National Center for the Chronic Disease Prevention, CDC

Physical Education and Physical Activity in Iowa
The Iowa Action Guide accompanies the State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014.

The report provides state specific data and recommendations for enhancing physical activity in the state.

"Could School Combat Rise in ADHD With More Exercise?"

ABC NEWS: Exercise and ADHD

"Aerobic Exercise Significantly Alleviates Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression"
“If everyone knew that exercise worked as well as Zoloft, I think we could put a real dent in the disease.” Dr. John Ratey, a practicing psychiatrist, clinical associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, and author of seven books on brain functioning

In Britain, doctors now use exercise as a first-line treatment for depression, but it’s vastly underutilized in the United States…a fact that Dr. Ratey says is a shame given the supporting studies.

"Why Kids Need to Move, Touch and Experience to Learn"

Resources to Get Students Moving
Iowa Department of Education resources - Physical Activity

GoNoodle: Free brain breaks for your classroom
Keep kids focused and motivated. No special equipment or setup. All you need is a computer and a screen the whole class can see. You don't even have to upload.

"Improve Students’ Focus With This One Smart Tip"

Let’s Move! Active Schools

Move for Thought - Integrated Physical Activities for Learning in the Elementary School Classroom

"Schools use funds to focus on fitness," The Iowa City Press-Citizen, Jan. 25, 2015

Neuroscience for Kids

Jam School Program

Inclusive Practices

Disability Awareness Activity Packet

Equipment Resources

Physical Education Equipment for Check-out

Equipment for Check-out and Delivery: Available to teachers in the Grant Wood AEA service area

Equipment is available for check out to support physical education programming. Differentiating instruction for diverse learners is easy when you have the right piece of equipment.Equipment in this collection supports inclusive physical education placements as well as adapted physical education classes. It can be used by all students for success.

Equipment in this collection supports inclusive physical education placements as well as adapted physical education classes. It can be used by all students for success.

Items available for check-out can be viewed online. Contact Ann Griffin for check-out. Items can be delivered to schools via the GWAEA vans.

Make or Innovate

This video highlights high tech and low tech equipment innovations.


High-tech equipment adaptations
Customized, high tech, switch activated equipment is available for check-out to teachers in the Grant Wood AEA service area. Contact Ann Griffin for check-out.

Designs for inventions and innovations can be viewed at the Rockwell Collins Retiree Volunteers website, click on Completed Community Projects, and headings for Games for persons with disabilities, Low voltage switches for persons with disabilities, and Mechanical actuators.

Low-tech solutions to inclusion: Toys from Trash
Many recycled or inexpensive items can be used to augment or adapt physical education equipment. Here are designs for some unique "toys" from trash!

Ball Suspender
Boomerang Ball
Bubble Recipe
Cooperative Catcher
Funnel Shooter
Juggling Thuds
Ladder Golf
Stuffed Beach Ball
Tag Sticks Directions

No to Low Cost Ways to Promote Physical Activity

The "junk" equipment were prepared by Ripley Marston, professor of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services at the University of Northern Iowa.

Buy or Purchase at a Discount

AEA Purchasing facilitates a voluntary purchasing program to help Iowa schools save money. Combined purchasing power offers aggressive pricing. Athletic and physical education equipment is part of this program. Check these prices before ordering.

Professional Development - Upcoming Events

Central District Conference
Jan. 25-27, 2018
Sioux Falls, SD
Sponsored by Sanford Health
Co-hosted by SHAPE South Dakota
For more information, visit http://www.shapeamerica.org/central2018

2018 SHAPE America National Convention & Expo
March 20-24, 2018
Nashville, TN
Music City Center
For information, visit http://www.shapeamerica.org/convention
Early Bird registration through Feb. 7, 2018

Grant Wood AEA Professional Development