Exploring General Education Literacy

Grant Wood AEA General Literacy consultants provide building-wide professional development, assistance with curriculum development, support for selecting materials, models of instructional approaches and ongoing consultation in reading, writing, speaking, and listening for K-12 students. These efforts are designed to build a school learning community engaged in studying and promoting growth in literacy while focusing on improving student achievement in literacy.

There are six components to essential literacy development. Explore each component's definition, curriculum, instruction, and diagnostic suggestions, or access this staff directory to locate the literacy consultant who supports your building or district.


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Phonological Awareness

Definition


  • Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify & manipulate individual sounds - phonemes- in spoken words. Phonemes are the smallest units comprising spoken language.
  • Phonemic awareness and phonological awareness are often used interchangeably, but they are different. Phonological awareness is a broad term that includes phonemic awareness but is more encompassing. It refers to the ability to hear and manipulate sounds at the word, syllable and phoneme level.
  • The five levels of phonological awareness from the simplest to the most complex form include rhyme and alliteration, sentence segmenting, syllables, onset & rimes, and phonemes.
  • Research indicates that the phoneme level of phonological awareness is the most critical for learning to read.

Curriculum and Instruction


Curriculum

Iowa Core Foundational Skills Standards for Phonological Awareness for grades K-1 are found on page 19

Instruction
Florida Center for Reading Research
For Educators / Student center activities for phonological awareness and phonemic awareness practice for grades K-3/ Empowering Teachers / Instructional Routines

Sharon Walpole Lessons and Modules from How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction
Differentiating in Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition

Every Child Reads Materials

Diagnostic Assessment


Pre-Decoding Skills Survey


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Phonics

Definition

  • Phonics is the understanding that there is predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spelling that represent those sounds in written language).
  • Phonics instruction teaches children the relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of the spoken language.
  • Phonics instruction helps children learn and use the alphabetic principle - the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.

Curriculum and Instruction

  • Iowa Core Foundational Skills
  • Reading Standards for Literature K-5 are found on pgs. 11-15
  • Reading Standards for Literature 6-12 are found on pgs. 46-53
  • Instruction
  • ReadWorks - Comprehension Units, Skill and Strategy Lessons, Reading Passages for all grade levels
  • Corrective Reading Comprehension
  • Fusion Reading (MS/HS)
  • RAAC (Reread-Adapt-Answer-Comprehend) (for more information or access to materials, contact your Literacy Consultant)
  • Read to Achieve (MS/HS)
  • Every Child Reads Materials

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    Fluency

    Fluency Definition

    • Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with proper expression.
    • During silent reading, fluent readers recognize words automatically. They group words quickly to help them gain meaning from what they read.
    • Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and withexpression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking.
    • Accuracy-Fluent readers have theability to decode (sound out) words as they read. They are able to do this without thinking about it because they have mastered the rules of phonics.
    • Automaticity-When a task that formerly required attention for its performance can be performed without [or with little] attention, the task is being done automatically.
    • Automaticity and fluency are not synonymous. Readers must have automaticity and word recognition to be fluent.
    • Prosody-Appropriate expression, phrasing and intonation.

    Curriculum and Instruction


  • Fluency - Six Minute Solutions
  • Cold Read/Hot Read
  • Every Child Reads Materials
  • Fluency Flagging
  • Read Naturally
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
      • For Educators
      • Student center activities for phonological awareness and phonemic awareness practice for grades K-3
      • Empowering Teachers
      • Instructional Routines
  • Sharon Walpole Lessons and Modules from How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction
      • Differentiating in Fluency and Comprehension - Multi-syllabic words

  • Corrective Reading Decoding

    - Fluency instruction is addressed in the Group Reading and Reading Checkout parts of each lesson (Decoding strand, levels B1 [beginning at lesson 7], B2, C). The research-based strategy, partner reading, is utilized during the Reading Checkout section. The teacher models prosody and immediate feedback is given to students in the form of a formal correction procedure. Fluency goals are included and require students to meet a precise criterion for rate and accuracy. In particular, Decoding strand level A requires students to master reading 60 words per minute (WPM) with 90% accuracy, levels B1 requires reading of 90 wpm with 98% accuracy, level B2 requires reading 120 wpm with 98% accuracy, and level C requires reading 150 WPM.


    Assessment



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    Vocabulary

    Vocabulary Definition

    • Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. In general, vocabulary can be describes as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary.
    • Oral vocabulary refers to the words we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.

    Curriculum and Instruction

    Instruction


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    Comprehension

    Comprehension Definition

  • "Comprehension is a process in which the reader constructs meaning by interacting with text." (Harris & Hodges, 1995)
  • Text comprehension is purposeful, active, and can be developed by teaching comprehension strategies. Comprehension strategies are plans or procedures that readers use and apply when they hear text read aloud, when they read text with a teacher, and when they read independently.
  • Comprehension is the reason for reading. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they are reading, they are not really reading (National Institute for Literacy, 2001)
  • Comprehension instruction is more than just asking questions to assess student understanding. Effective comprehension instruction includes helping students to become more strategic readers so they will understand what they read.

    Curriculum and Instruction

  • Iowa Core Foundational Skills
  • Reading Standards for Literature K-5 are found on pgs. 11-15
  • Reading Standards for Literature 6-12 are found on pgs. 46-53
  • Instruction
  • ReadWorks - Comprehension Units, Skill and Strategy Lessons, Reading Passages for all grade levels
  • Corrective Reading Comprehension
  • Fusion Reading (MS/HS)
  • RAAC (Reread-Adapt-Answer-Comprehend) (for more information or access to materials, contact your Literacy Consultant)
  • Read to Achieve (MS/HS)
  • Every Child Reads Materials

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    Writing

    Assessment

    • Oregon Reading First - The website includes definitions and descriptions of the research and theories behind each of the big ideas, describes how to assess the big ideas, and provides information on how to teach the big ideas in your classroom.